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Basic Terminologies of Hydrology

Basic Terminologies of Hydrology

  • Discharge

“Volume of water passing at a particular point in unit time.”

  • Hydrological Cycle

“The continuous process by which water is circulated throughout the Earth and its atmosphere.“

  • Evaporation

“Process by which liquid water is converted into water vapor.“

  • Transpiration

“Water discharged into the atmosphere from plant surfaces.”

  • Evapo-transpiration

“Combination of evaporation from free water surfaces and transpiration of water from plant surfaces to the atmosphere.“

  • Condensation

“Condensation is the process by which matter transition from a gas (or vapor) phase into a liquid phase.“

  • Precipitation

“All type of moistures (drizzling, rainfall, snowfall, sleet etc.) reaching to the surface of the earth from atmosphere”

  • Watershed

“Land area from which water drains toward a common watercourse in a natural basin.”

  • Time of concentration

“The Tc is generally defined as the time required for a drop of water to travel from the most hydrologically remote point in the sub catchment to the point of collection. “

  • Runoff

“That part of precipitation that flows toward the streams on the surface of the ground or within the ground. Runoff is composed of base flow and surface runoff. “

  • Surface Runoff

“The runoff that travels overland to the stream channel.”

  • Interception

“The process by which precipitation is caught and held by foliage, twigs, and branches of trees, shrubs, and other vegetation, and lost by evaporation, never reaching the surface of the ground.“

  • Infiltration

“Movement of water through the soil surface into the soil.“

  • Interflow

“The lateral motion of water through the upper layers until it enters a stream channel. This usually takes longer to reach stream channels than runoff. This also called subsurface storm flow.“

  • Percolation

“The movement of water, under hydrostatic pressure, through the interstices of a rock or soil, except the movement through large openings such as caves.“

  • Base Flow

“Stream flow which results from precipitation that infiltrates into the soil and eventually moves through the soil to the stream channel. This is also referred to as ground water flow, or dry-weather flow. “

  • Ground Water

“Water within the earth that supplies wells and springs; water in the zone of saturation where all openings in rocks and soil are filled, the upper surface of which forms the water table. Also termed Phreatic water.”

  • Water Table

“The level below the earth’s surface at which the ground becomes saturated with water.”

  • Watercourse

“Any surface flow such as a river, stream, or tributary.

  • Depression Storage

“The volume of water contained in natural depressions in the land surface, such as puddles.“

  • Detention Storage

“The volume of water, other than depression storage, existing on the land surface as flowing water which has not yet reached the channel.“

  • River Basin

“Drainage area of a river and its tributaries.”

  • Hydrograph

“A graph showing the water level (stage), discharge, or other property of a river volume with respect to time.”

  • Flood Plain

“The portion of a river valley that has been inundated by the river during historic floods.”

  • Flash Flood

“A flood which follows within a few hours (usually less than 6 hours) of heavy or excessive rainfall, dam or levee failure, or the sudden release of water impounded by an ice jam or landslide etc.“

  • Flood Routing

“Process of determining progressively the timing, shape, and amplitude of a flood wave as it moves downstream to successive points along the river. “

About Mustafa

My name is Mustafa Awais, I am basically from Pakistan & Currently living in Saudia Arabia, I am Civil Engineer as well as Web Master.

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