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Concrete “Concrete is a stone like material obtained by permitting a carefully proportioned mixture of cement,sand, and gravel or other aggregates and water also” The bulk of the material is consisting of fine and coarse aggregates. Cement and water interact chemically to bind the aggregates particles into a solid mass. Additional water, over and above that needed for this chemically reaction. Concrete with a wide range of properties can be obtained by appropriate ... Read More »



Aggregate In ordinary structural concrete the aggregates occupy about 70 to 75 % of the volume of harden mass. The reminder consist of hardened cement paste uncombined water (i.e. water not involved in the hydration of cement) air voids. The later evidently do not contribute to the strength of concrete. In general more densely they can be packed, the better the durability and economy of concrete. For this reason gradation of particle size to produce close packing is of considerable importance. It is ... Read More »

Gradation of Aggregates

Gradation of Aggregates

Gradation There are four types of gradation 1)     Well Graded 2)     Poor Graded 3)     Gap graded 4)     Single Sizes 1)  Well Graded “It is the type in which the particles of all sizes are in good proportion The well graded stones are preferred for concrete work 2)  Poorly Graded “It is the type in which the particles of all sizes are not in good gradation. 3)    Gap Graded ... Read More »

Factors Affecting Workability


Factors Affecting Workability There are the following factors effecting on workability of concrete 1)     Water content of the mix 2)     Influence of aggregates mix proportions 3)     Aggregates properties 4)     Temperature and time 5)     Cement characteristics 1)  Water Content of the Mix is a Factors Affecting Workability Water requirement is associated with Absorption by aggregate surface To fill the voids b/w aggregates Lubricating particles by separating them with a film of water. Fine aggregates with more surface area will have ... Read More »

Steps Involved in Workability

Steps Involved by Workability

Steps Involved in Workability There are the following steps involved in the workability of concrete. 1)  Mixing (Steps Involved in Workability) The first major step involved in workability is mixing. The principal purpose of mixing is to produce an intimate Mixture of cement water, fine and coarse aggregate and possible admixtures of uniform, consistency through each batch. This is achieved in machine mixtures of resolving drum ... Read More »

Problems Related to Workability

Problems Related to Workability

Problems Related to Workability The analysis of this is based on the concept in physics call “Rehology” “Which are the science of dealing with the deformation and the flow of material under stress” 1)   Segregation Segregation of the component in the mix resulting in a non uniform mix. E.g. if a mix is subjected to excessive vibrations the coarse aggregates settle to bottom and ... Read More »

Hot Weather Concrete

Concrete in Hot Weather

Hot Weather Concrete In our country temperature will raise upto 40-50 oC during summer months such temperature is combined with high wind velocity and low humidity enhance the rate of evaporation of water, increases the rate of hydration of cement, these factor reduce the setting time of concrete considerably and adversely effect properties of hardened concrete. Concrete placed at high temperature is prone to excessive contraction due to rapid evaporation of water; there is ... Read More »

Hardened Concrete

Hardened Concrete  In hardened concrete we are connected with the following characteristics 1)     Strength <<< 2)     Permeability <<< 3)     Durability <<<   Read More »

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