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Wells The most common device used by men for tapping groundwater is the wells. This a vertical opening or shaft excavated into the zone of saturation. They serves as reservoirs into which ground water moves and form which it can be pumped to the surface. The amount of water that they will yield depends chiefly on v The permeability of the aquifer v Thickness of the aquifer v Diameter of the well Types Of ... Read More »


Earth Quake

Earthquake An earthquake is the sudden vibration of the earth’s surface by rapid release of energy. This energy is released when two parts of rock masses move suddenly in relation to each other along a fault. Causes of Earthquake Depending upon their mode of origin, the EQ are classified into following groups. i. EQ Due to Surface Causes EQ may be ... Read More »



Spring When the groundwater flows out at the ground surface, it is called the spring. The They are formed at where water table intersects ground surface. Types of Springs There are the following types of spring. i. Water Table Spring The water table are found in depression where the ground level is below the water table. ii. Contact Where an impervious bed underlies a permeable bed, the groundwater flows out along the contact ... Read More »

Ground Water

Ground Water

Ground Water Beneath most land areas the groundwater occur in three zones Zone of Aeration in Ground Water The zone of aeration extends from the ground surface down upto the capillary fringe. This is the unsaturated zone in which the pore spaces of the rock are partly with air. The rain water moving vertically downwards to the water table passes through this zone. A certain amount of water is always held in ... Read More »



Glacier A glacier is a thick mass of ice which moves over the ground under the influence of gravity. It originates on land form the compaction and re-crystallization of snow. Glaciers form in places where more snow accumulates each year than that melts away. They are found in high latitudes as in the arctic region, or the high elevation as on the ... Read More »



Dam The dams are barriers which are constructed across rivers to store water. They are built mainly to control floods, for irrigating lands, for generating electricity and for supplying water to industries and cities. A Dam that serves more than one purpose is called a multipurpose dam. Geological Problems Associated with Dam Site Most of the dam failure that has occurred in the past is not due to mainly ... Read More »



Reservoir The artificial lakes which are created by constructed dams across river care called reservoirs. It may fail either due to excessive leakage of water or a result as a rapid sedimentation. Problems Associated There are the main geological problems connected which are as under follows:- Groundwater Condition The amount of leakage of water from the reservoir is controlled by the depth of water table. If the water ... Read More »



Tunnels Tunnels is a nearly horizontal underground passage which is open at both ends to the ground surface. Tunnels are constructed below cities, rivers and through mountains for carrying railways, rocks, canals water supply and sewerage. In majority of cases, the location and alignment of tunnels and size of the bore are established prior to the geological survey. Before starting the geological investigation, photo-geologic interpretation should be done along ... Read More »

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