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Application of Hydrology in Engineering

Application of Hydrology in Engineering Hydrology finds its greatest application in the design and operation of water resources engineering projects The capacity of storage structures (reservoirs etc.) The magnitude of flood flows to enable safe disposal of the excess flow (Spillways etc.) The minimum flow and quantity of flow available at various seasons (Irrigation and urban water supply projects etc.) ... Read More »



Weather The Hydrologic characteristics of a region are determined largely by its climate and its geological structure. Climate Factors Amount and distribution of precipitation; The occurrence of snow and ice; The effects of wind, Temperature, Humidity on evaporation and snowmelt Hydrology & Meterology & Weather Hydrologic problems in which meteorology plays an important role include: Determination of probable maximum precipitation, Optimum snowmelt ... Read More »



Temperature “The average kinetic energy of gas molecules is known as temperature” Measurement of Temperature: General Considerations: The thermometers must be placed where air circulation is relatively unobstructed,  They must be protected from the direct rays of the sun and from precipitation.  Min & Max Temperature The minimum thermometer, of the alcohol in glass type, has an index which remains ... Read More »



Humidity In any mixture of gases, each gas exerts a partial pressure independent of the other gases. The partial pressure exerted by water vapor is called vapor pressure. If all the water vapor in a closed container of moist air with an initial total pressure p were removed, the final pressure p’ of the dry air alone would be less ... Read More »


Wind AIR in motion is called WIND Stagnant air in contact with a water surface eventually assumes the vapor pressure of the surface so that no evaporation takes place. It is also important in the production of precipitation Measurement of Wind Wind has both speed and direction. The wind direction is the direction from which it is blowing. Direction is ... Read More »

Rain Guage

Rain Guages

Recording Type Rain Guage   Float Type Rain Guage Weighing Type Rain Guage Tipping Bucket Type Rain Guage Float Type Rain Guage It operates by catching the accumulated rainfall in afloat chamber or container having a light, hollow float. The vertical movement of the float with the increasing amount of rainfall is recorded on a chart. The chart is normally wrapped around ... Read More »

Stream Gaging

Stream Gaging

Stream Gaging Stream flow records obtained at gaging stations serve as a base for the construction of various structures like dams, bridges, culverts, barrages, spillways, etc. Termanologies in Gaging Stream “A stream can be defined as a flow channel into which the runoff from a specified catchment or basin drains” Stage “It is the water surface elevation above an arbitrary ... Read More »

Water Budget Equation

WB Equation

Water Budget Equation Catchment area The area of land draining in to a stream or a water course at a given location is called catchment area / drainage area / drainage basin / watershed. A catchment area is separated from its neighboring areas by a ridge called divide. A watershed is a geographical unit in which the hydrological cycle and ... Read More »

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