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Contemporary Theories in Management

Contemporary Theories in Management Contingency Theory Basically, contingency theory asserts that when managers make a decision, they must take into account all aspects of the current situation and act on those aspects that are key to the situation at hand. Basically, it’s the approach that “it depends.” For example, the continuing effort to identify the best leadership or management style ... Read More »

Factors Effecting Precipitation

Factors Effecting Precipitation Mechanism of Cooling Condensation of Water Vapors Growth of Droplets Mechanism of Cooling There reduction in pressure when air ascends from the surface of earth to upper levels in the atmosphere is the only mechanism capable of producing the degree and needed to account for heavy rainfall. The capacity of a given volume of air to hold a ... Read More »

Analysis vs Design

Analyse Design

Analysis vs Design Structural Analysis Structural Analysis is the prediction of the performance of a given structure under prescribed loads and/or other effects, such as support movements and temperature change. Structural Design Structural design is the art of utilizing principles of statics, dynamics, and mechanics of materials to determine the size and arrangement of structural elements under prescribed loads and/or ... Read More »

Responsibilities of Engineer

Responsibilities of Engineer

Responsibilities of Engineer The structural designer or engineer must learn to arrange and proportion the parts of structures so that they can be practically erected and will have sufficient strength and reasonable economy. Some of the items that must be considered include Safety Cost Practicality Safety Not only must the frame of a structure safely support the loads to which ... Read More »

Units in Hydrology

Units in Hydrology Rainfall volume is normally measured in inches or cm Rainfall rate or intensity in inches/hr or cm/hr Infiltration is measured in inches/hr or cm/hr Evaporation is measured in inches or in/hr (cm/hr) Stream flow is measured in ft3/s or m3/s One acre-ft of volume is 43,560 ft3 of water 1 ac-inch/hr is approx. equal to 1.008 ft3/s ... Read More »

Application of Hydrology in Engineering

Application of Hydrology in Engineering Hydrology finds its greatest application in the design and operation of water resources engineering projects The capacity of storage structures (reservoirs etc.) The magnitude of flood flows to enable safe disposal of the excess flow (Spillways etc.) The minimum flow and quantity of flow available at various seasons (Irrigation and urban water supply projects etc.) ... Read More »



Weather The Hydrologic characteristics of a region are determined largely by its climate and its geological structure. Climate Factors Amount and distribution of precipitation; The occurrence of snow and ice; The effects of wind, Temperature, Humidity on evaporation and snowmelt Hydrology & Meterology & Weather Hydrologic problems in which meteorology plays an important role include: Determination of probable maximum precipitation, Optimum snowmelt ... Read More »



Temperature “The average kinetic energy of gas molecules is known as temperature” Measurement of Temperature: General Considerations: The thermometers must be placed where air circulation is relatively unobstructed,  They must be protected from the direct rays of the sun and from precipitation.  Min & Max Temperature The minimum thermometer, of the alcohol in glass type, has an index which remains ... Read More »

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