Computer (Computer Information)
The computer is derived from the word compute which means to calculate. So computer is normally considered to be a calculating device that can perform arithmetic and logical operations at very fast speed.
A computer is an electronic device that accepts data, process it and give results after that processing.
CPU (Computer Information)
The central processing unit is also sometimes called processor, consists of a variety of circuitry and components packaged together and plugged directly into the motherboard. The CPU often referred to as a microprocessor when talking about PCs does the vast majority of the processing for a computer. It is also called brain of the computer.
RAM (Computer Information)
RAM the computer system’s main memory is used to store the essential parts of the operating system while the computers is running. RAM is that specific area inside a computer unit, in which all programs and data must reside before the execution of program or manipulation of data. It is read and writes memory, enables data to be both read and written on the memory. With no mechanical movement data can be accessed from RAM at electronic speed or close to the speed of light. The most commonly technologies are Dynamic RAM (DRAM) and static RAM (SRAM).
Compiler (Computer Information)
A compiler translates an entire program into machine language before executing it. Each complier-oriented language requires its own special compiler. For instance, a COCOL program needs a COBOL compiler; it cannot be converted into object code using a BASIC language.
Normally before the objects modules the CPU needs to process the program
Data Processing (Computer Information)
Data processing refers to operation carried out a data to convert it into useful information. Data processing includes not only numerical calculations but also operations such as the classification of data and transmission of data from one place to another e.g.
In fact data processing is putting facts and figure into a form that is useful. It spans almost over all human activities, data processing is for example,
- Finding how much gas mileage we are getting form new car.
- Figuring out income tax of any business.
- Budgeting out expanses for next month.
Bus Topology (Computer Information)
This is a computer network that permits the connection of terminals, peripheral devices and microcomputers along an open ended central cable which is called bus. The term bus is used because people on a bus ca get off at any stop along the route. Coaxial cable and BNC (British Naval Connector) is used in this topology. A device wanting to communicate with another device on the network will broadcast message on the network and all the devices can receive message whose address is with the message.
It is easy to understand.
Bus topology is simple and it is easy to connect additional terminals to this kind of network.
This is the best topology for connecting the devices, which are close to one another.
If there is any error in the network, it cannot easily be detected.
Chances of data collision are very high due to devices.
Star Topology (Computer Information)
The star topology is the oldest topology for computer networks; it is a computer network that involves a centralized host computer connected to a number of smaller computer systems with a central device called hub or switch. The smaller computer systems communicate with one another through their central device and usually share the host computer’s resources. Any computer can communicate with any other computer in the network. Twisted pair cable and RJ-45 connector is used in this topology.
If any terminal becomes defective, it does not affect any other terminal of this network.
The central computer controls the flow of the data.
There is no chance of data collision in star topology.
This type of topology is expensive because each terminal is connected with a separate cable.
If the central device is shutdown, the whole network will suffer.
Ring Topology (Computer Information)
In this topology every device has exactly two neighbors. All messages travel through a ring in the same direction. A failure in any cable segment or device breaks the loop and can take down the entire network. Token passing scheme is used in this topology. Only one token is available on the network. When a node wants to transmit data it will capture the token and then transmit data, in this way only one device can transmit data at a time. Twisted pair cable and RJ-45 connector is used.
It the central computer fails, any other computer can be made central computer.
There are no chances of data collision in these types of topology.
If one of the terminals becomes defective, it affects the whole network.
It is difficult to troubleshoot the ring topology.
WWW (Computer Information)
The World Wide Web is a collection of documents called Web pages, available through the internet. The web pages files are located on computers that are continually connected to the internet so they can be accessed at any time by anyone with a computer and an internet connection.
Web pages today contain text, graphics, sound, video, three-dimension virtual reality (VR) and more, web pages connected by hyperlinks when clicked with the mouse, display other pages.
Internet (Computer Information)
The internet is the largest and most well know computer network in the world. It is technically a network of networks, since it is comprised of thousand of networks that can all access each other via the main backbone infrastructure of the internet. Typically, individuals connect to the internet through their internet service providers (ISPs) companies who provide internet access, usually for a fee.
E-Commerce (Computer Information)
The term e-commerce is used to describe the performing financial transaction online. Although implemented today most commonly via the internet, e-commerce has been performed for years via private networks, such as electronic funds transfers by banks.
The benefits of e-commerce to businesses include reduced costs, increased customers, satisfaction, more effective management tools, and potentially higher sales.
ISP (Computer Information)
Internet service providers often called service providers or access providers are business or other organizations that provide internet access to others, typically for a fee. Communication and media companies, such as conventional and wireless telephone companies and vale and satellite TV providers, typically offer internet service over their respective media.
One of the more versatile new bus architectures in recent years is the Universal Serial Bus. The USB standard enables up to 127 devices to be connected to a computer’s PCI bus through a single port on the computer’s system unit. At 1.5MBps, the original ISB standard transmitted data at a much slower than both PCI and AGP. The newer USB 2 standard supports data transfer rates of 60MBps still slower than PCI and AGP, but the convenience and universal supports of USB have made it one of the most widely used standards for peripherals today.
OS (Computer Information)
An operating system is an integrated set of programs that is used to manage the various resources and overall operation of a computer system. It is designed to support the activities of a computer installation. Its prime objective is to improve the performance and efficiency if a computer system and increase facility and ease with which system can be used. It also makes the computer system user friendly. MS Windows is the name of a popular operating system that is used on many of today’s computers. When you start a computer the operating system is loaded or copied into memory from the computer’s hard disk. It remain in memory while the computer is running and allows you to communicate with the computer and other software
Other popular operating system includes the Disk Operating System (DOS), Windows, Macintosh System (Mac. OS) from Apple computer, Inc., OS/2 Warp from IBM, and UNIX and its variation, such as Linux etc.
Software (Computer Information)
Computer software refers to a collective set of instruction called programs that can be interpreted by a computer and cannot be touched by the humans. The program causes the computer to perform desired function such as flight simulation (a computer game), the generation of business graphics or word processing. Following are the basic types of software
- System Software
- Application Software
- Utility Programs
High Level Language (Computer Information)
High level language enables the programmer to write instructions using English works and familiar mathematical symbols. So it becomes easier for him to concentrate in the logic of his problem rather than getting involved in programming details. High level language is basically symbolic language that uses English words. Every instruction which the programmer writes in a high level language is translated into many machine language instructions. This is one to many translations and nor one to one as in the case of assembly language. Example of high level language are C, C++, COBAL, PASCAL and FORTRAN etc.
Low Level Language (Computer Information)
Although computer can be programmed to understand many different computer languages, there is only language understood by the computer without using translation program. This language is called the low level or machine language or the machine code of the computer. Machine code is fundamental language of computer and is normally written as string of binary 1s and 0s. This circuitry if a computer is wired in such a way that it immediately recognizes the machine language and converts or onto the electrical signals needed to run the computer, the computer can execute program written in machine language very fast. This is mainly because the CPU directly understands machine instruction and no translation of the program is required.
XP (Computer Information)
Window XP is one of such operating system and is a part of the Ms Windows family that includes Windows 98, Windows 2000 etc. Windows XP looks very much like windows 98, but it includes significant improvement compared to window 98. Window XP is advanced formed of window 2000, combined with Windows NT Technology with the Windows 98 graphical user interface, window XP is high performance secure network client computer and corporate desktop operating system that include the best feature of MS Windows 98.
Excel (Computer Information)
It is a group of values and other data organized into rows and columns, similar to the ruled paper worksheets traditionally used by bookkeepers and accountants. Ms Excel is a type of application software used to create computerized spreadsheets. Advantage of using a computerized spreadsheet includes the ability to save, modify, retrieve, and print the spreadsheet as often as necessary. Because spreadsheet tends to contain a great deal of numbers and mathematical calculations, however there is further benefit, the computer’s mathematically ability and tremendous speed. There characteristics allow a spreadsheet to contain numeric formulas that the computer will compute and keep up to data as data in the spreadsheet changes. This tremendously improves accuracy of the spreadsheet and saves the user form manually recomputing and then reentering values into the spreadsheet as data changes.
Word (Computer Information)
It is software that refers to using a computer and word processing software to create, edit, save and print written documents such as letters, legal contracts, manuscripts, news latter and reports. At its most basic level MS word is used to do what was done on a typewriter before computer was commonplace. More complex word processing documents include content that was not possible to create with typewriter, such as photos and other types of graphics, hyperlinks, video clips, and text in a variety of sizes and appearance. One of the greatest advantages of word processing that you can make changes without retyping the whole document.
Browser (Computer Information)
To view Web Pages, you need a web browser program. The most common browsers are Microsoft Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator and Fire Fox. Although originally designed to display web pages, many browsers can also be used for other internet applications, such as sending and receiving e-mail and downloading files. Instead of using conventional browsers, handled PCs and mobile devices use browsers called microbrewers.
Search Engine (Computer Information)
Search engine a special software program in conjunction with huge data base of information about web pages to help vision find web pages that contain the information that they are seeking. These databases are usually updated automatically on a regular basis although some use human editors to manually classify the web pages according to contents.
Computer Network (Computer Information)
Computer network is of a collection of computer and other hardware devices connected together so that network users can share hardware, software and data as well as electronically communicate with each others. Networks are widely used in both homes and business today.
The data transmitted over a network has specific characteristics and it can travel over network in various ways. Network devices communicate either through a wired communication via physical cables or by wireless communication typically through radio signals.
Motherboard (Computer Information)
The circuit board is a thin board containing chips, very small pieces of silicon or other semi-conducting material onto which integrated circuits are embedded and other electronic components. The main circuit board inside the system unit is called motherboard or system board, all devices used with a computer need to be connected in one way or another to the motherboard.