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Concrete is a stone like material obtained by permitting a carefully proportioned mixture of cement,sand, and gravel or other aggregates and water also
The bulk of the material is consisting of fine and coarse aggregates.
Cement and water interact chemically to bind the aggregates particles into a solid mass.
Additional water, over and above that needed for this chemically reaction.
Concrete with a wide range of properties can be obtained by appropriate adjustment of the proportions of the constituent material.

Level of Observation

There are three levels of observation for concrete
That’s are

1)     Macro Level
2)     Meso Level
3)     Micro Level
Now we define concrete at these three levels

1)  Macro Level

At macro level we can define concrete as
“Concrete is a mixture of fine (filler, binder) and coarse aggregates.”

2)  Meso Level

“Concrete is a mixture of cement, sand, crushed stone and water and air voids.”

3)  Micro Level

At micro level we explain each thing with detail separately.”


There are three types of cement.
C2S    →     di calcium silicate
C3S     →     tri calcium
C3A     →    tri calcium aluminates


Three proportions of material are usually used in concrete that are given below

1    :    1.5     :   3
1     :         2     :    4
1      :      4    :      8

Setting Time

Initial setting time of cement = 30min
Final setting time of cement = 45 min
At the normal condition
Concrete strength = 70 – 80

About Mustafa

My name is Mustafa Awais, I am basically from Pakistan & Currently living in Saudia Arabia, I am Civil Engineer as well as Web Master.

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