Importance of Geology
The value of geology in Mining has long been known but its use in Civil Engineering has been recognized only in comparatively recent years. The importance of geology in civil engineering may briefly be outlines as follows:-
- Geology provides a systematic knowledge of construction material, its occurrence,composition, durability and other properties. Example of such construction materials is building stones, road metal, clay, limestones and laterite.
- The knowledge of the geological work of natural agencies such as water, wind, ice and earthquakes helps in planning and carrying out major civil engineering works. For examplethe knowledge of erosion, transportation and deposition helps greatly in solving the expensive problems of river control, coastal and harbour work and soil conservation.
- Ground water is the water which occurs in the subsurface rocks. The knowledge about its quantity and depth of occurrence is required in connection with water supply, irrigation, excavation and many other civil engineering works.
- The foundation problems of dams, bridges and buildings are directly concerned with the geology of the area where they are to be built. In these works drilling is commonly undertaken to explore the ground conditions. Geology helps greatly in interpreting thedrilling data.
- In tunneling, constructing roads, canals, docks and in determining the stability of cuts and slopes, the knowledge about the nature and structure of rocks is very necessary.
- Before staring a major engineering project at a place, a detailed geological report which is accompanied by geological maps and sections, is prepared. Such a report helps in planning and constructing the projects.
- The stability of civil engineering structure is considerably increased if the geological feature like faults, joints, bedding planes, folding solution channels etc in the rock beds are properly located and suitably treated.
- In the study of soil mechanics, it is necessary to know how the soil materials are formed innature.
- The cost of engineering works will considerably reduced of the geological survey of the area concerned is done before hand.