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Formation The surface prepared to receive the ballast, sleepers, rails, etc.. for constructing the railway track is called Formation or sub grade. Function of formation The formation has the following functions It provides a smooth and uniform bed on which the track is laid. It bears the entire load transmitted from the moving loads to it through the ballast. It ... Read More »


Steel Sleepers

Sleepers Sleeper is transverse support for a railway to give stiffness to it. Functions of Sleepers Holds the rails to correct gauge. Give a firm and even support to the rails. Distributes the axle load over a sufficiently large area of ballast. To act as elastic medium between the rails and ballast to absorb vibration. To maintain the alignment of ... Read More »



Ballast Ballast is a layer of broken stone, gravel, or any other suitable material placed under and around the sleepers for distributing the load from the sleepers to the formation. Functions of Ballast It provides a suitable foundation for the sleepers. It transfer and distributes loads from the sleepers to a larger area of formation. it provides effective drainage to ... Read More »

Types of Railway

Super Express

Functional Types of Railway Super Express Rapid Trains Local Trains Subways 1. Super Express (Bullet Train) Normally intercity trains. Top Commercial Speed Country dependent Maximum 581km/h (Japan) Still under Experiments. France and European countries 330 km/h on an average. 2. Rapid Trains (Limited Express Train) Intercity Trains, Urban-rural Connection Top commercial Speed 120-150 km/h Stops at Limited Stations. 3. Local ... Read More »

Creep of Rails

Creep of Rails It is a horizontal movement of rails in a track. It can be minimized but cannot be stopped. Causes Of Creep| There are three main causes of Creep Wave motion of trains. Expansion and contraction of rails due to variation in temperature. Due to starting, accelerating, slowing down (decelerating) and stopping of trains. Wave Motion When train ... Read More »


WEAR OF RAILS TYPES Wear on Head of Rail Wear on Ends of Rail Wear of Rail on Curve WEAR ON HEAD OF RAIL Wear on head of rail is due to abrasion on moving rails. Due to grinding action of sand or dust between the rails and wheels of the train. When train starts or applies brakes, the wheel ... Read More »


Double Headed Rail

RAILS Rail is an iron beam. Its main function is to provide a most economical, smooth and level surface for the smooth passage of heavily loaded vehicles at great speed. The two RAILS of the track also serve as a lateral guide for the running of the wheels. Types of Rails Rails can be classified into the following categories: Double ... Read More »

7 C s of Communication

7c s of communication

7 C s of Communication The are followings 7 C s of Communication, by implementing these the communication will be more effective than ever (1) Clarity (2) Correctness (3) Conciseness (4) Completeness (5) Courtesy (6) Consideration (7) Creates a favorable Impression (1) Clarity  (7 C s of Communication) Definition Getting the meaning from your head into the head of your ... Read More »

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