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Introduction to Hydrology Water is vital for all living organisms on Earth. For centuries, people have been investigating where water comes from and where it goes, why some of it is salty and some is fresh, why sometimes there is not enough and sometimes too much. All questions and answers related to water have been grouped together into one discipline. ... Read More »

History of Hydrology

History of Hydrology

History of Hydrology Some qualitative phases of hydrology were developed during the late nineteenth century. Quantitative research was done in early years of the present century by Horton, Sherman, Meyer, Mead and others.  The last two decades shown great advance stimulated by increased government interest in flood control, soil conservation, river navigation and hydro-electric power development. Attempts were made to ... Read More »

Basic Terminologies of Hydrology

Basic Terminologies of Hydrology Discharge “Volume of water passing at a particular point in unit time.” Hydrological Cycle “The continuous process by which water is circulated throughout the Earth and its atmosphere.“ Evaporation “Process by which liquid water is converted into water vapor.“ Transpiration “Water discharged into the atmosphere from plant surfaces.” Evapo-transpiration “Combination of evaporation from free water surfaces ... Read More »


Precipitation All forms of moisture emanating from the clouds and all forms of water like rain, snow, hail, and sleet derived from atmosphere vapor , falling to the ground is called precipitation. OR whatever water reaches the earth from the atmosphere is called precipitation Forms of Precipitation Drizzle: These are the minute particles of water at start of rain. Constant ... Read More »

Hydrologic Cycle

Hydrologic Cycle

Hydrologic Cycle Water exists on the earth in all its three states, viz. liquid, solid, gaseous and in various degrees of motion. Water, irrespective of different states, involves dynamic aspect in nature. The dynamic nature of water, the existence of water in various state with different hydrological process result in a very important natural phenomenon called Hydrologic cycle. Evaporation of ... Read More »

Types of Precipitation


Types of Precipitation Convectional Precipitation Orographic Precipitation Cyclonic Precipitation Convectional Precipitation Convection is the process of heat transfer from one place to another by the actual movement of hot fluids like gases and liquids. The main causative element is the thermal convection of moisture laden air. Solar radiation is a source of heat for this to occur. The air that comes ... Read More »

Factors Effecting Precipitation

Factors Effecting Precipitation Mechanism of Cooling Condensation of Water Vapors Growth of Droplets Mechanism of Cooling There reduction in pressure when air ascends from the surface of earth to upper levels in the atmosphere is the only mechanism capable of producing the degree and needed to account for heavy rainfall. The capacity of a given volume of air to hold a ... Read More »

Units in Hydrology

Units in Hydrology Rainfall volume is normally measured in inches or cm Rainfall rate or intensity in inches/hr or cm/hr Infiltration is measured in inches/hr or cm/hr Evaporation is measured in inches or in/hr (cm/hr) Stream flow is measured in ft3/s or m3/s One acre-ft of volume is 43,560 ft3 of water 1 ac-inch/hr is approx. equal to 1.008 ft3/s ... Read More »

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